The main resource that would interest mankind on the Moon would be deuterium-helium 3. It could be a tremendous energy source for future space installations and shuttles.
Otherwise the lunar soil is essentially filled with oxygen, silicon, iron, titanium, calcium, aluminum, and magnesium.
There would be a potential deposit of 100,000 tons of helium 3 on the moon. Yet 3 tons of helium 3 would be enough to satisfy the need in energy of a country such as the United States for a whole year. Helium 3 comes from the solar winds.
But the entry into the atmosphere of such materials would be extremely dangerous. This is why it is believed that this element will only be used in space to provide energy bases on the Moon, on Mars, and also for spacecrafts.
The main problem in the future extraction of these materials on the Moon, Mars or the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter is radiation covering the natural satellite that has no atmosphere. Especially during solar eruptions with violent radiations emitted and that can go through the largest shielding. As a result, the risk of developing cancers is increased. So only autonomous vehicles and robots could extract the minerals and gas. Or creating an underground base could solve this problem.
China is studying the possibility of installing mines on the Moon. The Russian company SP Koolev Rocket and Space wants to build a lunar base to extract helium 3 within ten years. In other countries there are more obstacles due to the oil and nuclear lobbies.
According to Professor Ouyang Ziyuan, the China’s lunar exploration program head, the moon would be so rich in helium 3 that it could solve the energy problem of mankind for the next 10,000 years.