Here is the list of the least polluting energies. Air emissions are expressed in grams of CO2 per KWh.
|Hydraulic run off river||13,0|
|Hydraulic water reservoir||13,0|
|Solar water thermal||17,5|
|Coal capture and storage||208,5|
|Liquefied petroleum gas||231,0|
|Hydrogen fuel cell||330,8|
|Combined cycle gas||388,7|
|Heavy fuel oil||414,8|
|Domestic fuel oil||487,3|
|Waste to energy||570,6|
This includes pollution emitted during construction, production and destruction of facilities.
The WPR should in theory be soon the greenest energy on Earth if the plants are entering into activity. Quickly followed by offshore wind, then onshore wind. Then come hydraulics, tidal power.
The wind turbine was developed much earlier than solar and therefore benefits from an advance. Solar has an incredible potential especially with the thin film technology. The tidal power is still in the larval state. Microalgae are not yet developed. Emissions from biomass, mainly wood, could decrease with the help of trigeneration.
Lignite is the most polluting source of energy on Earth, with coal. Coal-fired power plants will increasingly be accompanied by a cogeneration system with CO2 capture. The next generation, coal capture and storage of CO2 aims the 200 grams of CO2 per KWh.
Hydrogen in the form of a fuel cell should eventually be the least polluting energy. It is currently coupled with fossil fuels power plants. Fossil fuels remain on average five times more polluting than renewable energies.
Unless nuclear fusion with ITER and other less expensive projects is in place by then.
Here is the ranking that we could have in 15-20 years:
– nuclear fusion: 0.01 g / KWh,
– hydrogen: 0.5 g / KWh,
– solar: 5 g / KWh,
– tidal: 7 g / KWh,
– nuclear WPR: 9 g / KWh,
– wind: 10 g / KWh,
– hydraulic: 13 g / KWh,
– geothermal: 40 g / KWh,
– wood: 80 g / KWh,
– gas: 300 g / KWh,
– oil: 700 g / KWh,
– coal: 750 g / KWh.