The greatest wars and battles of the Middle Ages

Here is the list of the greatest war and battle during the Middle Ages from 476 to 1492:

BattleDatesCountryFirst belligerentSecond belligerentWorld population percentage (soldiers involved)Dead
Battle of ThannurisSummer 528Turkey- Byzantine30,000 Sassanids0,0148%1,300
Battle of Dara530Turkey25,000 Byzantines50,000 Sassanids0,0370%8,000
Battle of Callinicum19th April 531Syria25,000 Byzantines15,000 Sassanids0,0198%-
Battle of Ad Decimum13rd September 533Tunisia17,000 Byzantines11 000 Vandals0,0141%2,650
Battle of Tricaméron15th December 533Tunisia30,000 Byzantines22,000 Vandals0,0257%3,300
Siege of NaplesOctober - November 536Italia10,000 Byzantines800 Ostrogoths0,0053%-
Goth War535 - 553Italia35,000 Byzantines75,000 Ostrogoths, Franks0,0299%-
Siege of Rome537 - 538Italia15 600 byzantines45,000 Ostrogoths0,0296%-
Battle of FaventiaSummer 542Italia5,000 Ostrogoths12,000 Byzantines0,0084%-
Battle of the Caton Fields548Morocco142,000 Byzantines- Moorish0,0701%-
Battle of TaginaeJuly 552Italia25,000 Romans18,000 Goths0,0212%6,000
Battle of VolturnoOctober 554Italia18,000 Byzantines20,000 Franks0,0188%-
Battle of the TrenchMarch - April 627Saudi Arabia3,000 Muslims10,000 confederates0,0063%-
Battle of Nineveh12th December 627Iraq50,000 Byzantines12,000 Sassanids0,0301%6,000
Battle of Mu'tahSeptember 629Jordania200,000 Byzantines3,000 Muslim Arabs0,0986%3,362
Siege of Damascus21st August - 19th September 634Syria20,000 Byzantines16,000 Rachiduns0,0175%-
Battle of FahlJanuary 635Jordania- Byzantine30 000 Rachiduns0,0146%10,000
Battle of Yarmouk15th - 20th August 636West Bank400,000 Byzantines40,000 Rachiduns0,2138%123,000
Siege of JerusalemNovember 636 - April 637Israel- Byzantine20,000 Rachiduns0,0097%-
Battle of Heliopolis6th July 640Egypt20,000 Byzantines15,000 Rachiduns0,0170%-
Battle of Nikiou646Egypt- Byzantine15,000 Rachiduns0,0073%-
Battle of Sufetula647Tunisia200,000 Carthaginians20,000 Rachiduns0,1069%-
Battle of the camelJanuary 656Iraq20,000 Ali30 000 Banū'umayyas0,0243%18,000
Battle of Siffin657Syria135,000 muawiyas130,000 Ali0,1288%70,000
Battle of OngalSummer 680Ukraine80,000 Byzantines80,000 Bulgarian0,0777%70,000
Battle of Kerbala10th October 680Iraq72 Hussein Ibn Ali30,000 Umayyads0,0144%160
Battle of Carthage698Tunisia40,000 Umayyads- Carthaginian0,0192%-
Battle of Guadalete19th July 711Spain12,000 Umayyads33,000 Visigoths0,0216%3,000
Battle of Bordeaux732France30,000 Umayyads35,000 inhabitants of Aquitaine0,0312%-
Battle of Poitiers732France20,000 Franks, Aquitaine25,000 Umayyads0,0216%13,000
Battle of Akroinon740Turkey20,000 Umayyads- Byzantine0,0099%13,200
Battle of TalasJuly 751Kazakhstan190,000 Abbasids180,000 tangs0,1719%-
Battle of LithosoriaOctober 774Macedonia80,000 Byzantines12,000 Bulgarian0,0427%-
Abbasid invasion of Asia MinorSpring - Summer 782Turkey95,793 Abbasids- Byzantine0,0431%56,090
Battle of Lutos794Spain5,000 Asturias6,000 Umayyads0,0050%2,200
Abbasid invasion of Asia MinorSummer 806Turkey135,000 Abbasids- Byzantine0,0608%-
Battle of Pliska26th July 811Bulgaria80,000 Byzantines62,000 Bulgarian0,0640%70,000
Battle of Adrianople22nd June 813Turkey26,000 Byzantines12,000 Bulgarian0,0171%-
Battle of Anzen22nd July 838Turkey40,000 Byzantines30,000 Abbasids0,0308%-
Amorium rampageAugust 838Turkey30,000 Byzantines80,000 Abbasids0,0484%70,000
Siege of Paris24th November 885 - May 887France40,000 Vikings200 Franks0,0173%10,000
Battle of Anchialos20th August 917Bulgaria110,000 Byzantines70,000 Bulgarian0,0773%90,000
Battle of Simancas5th August 939Spain- Leóns100,000 Umayyads0,0376%-
Battle of Lechfeld10th August 955Germany4,000 Gypsies8,000 Magyars0,0045%-
Battle of ArcadiopolisAugust 970Turkey12,000 Byzantines30,000 Rus, Bulgarian0,0158%-
Battle of Dorystolon971Bulgaria30,000 Byzantines50,000 Rus0,0300%38,350
Battle of Trajan's Gates17th August 986Bulgaria30,000 Byzantines- Bulgarian0,0100%-
Battle of Apamea19th July 998Syria- Byzantine11,000 Fatimids0,0037%12,000
Battle of Kleidion Pass29th July 1014Bulgaria- Byzantine20,000 Bulgarian0,0067%-
Battle of AzazAugust 1030Syria20,000 Byzantines- Mirdassides0,0066%-
Battle of Montemaggiore4th May 1041Italia18,000 Byzantines2,000 Norman0,0066%-
Battle of Kapetrou1048Turkey50,000 Byzantines, Georgians- Seljuks0,0164%-
Battle of Stamford Bridge25th September 1066England7,500 Norwegian7,000 English0,0047%9,000
Battle of Hastings14th October 1066England15,000 Norman13,000 English0,0090%6,000
Battle of Sirmium1167Serbia15,000 Byzantines15,000 Hungarian0,0084%-
Battle of Manzikert26th August 1071Armenia70,000 Byzantines30,000 Seljuks0,0322%8,000
Battle of Kalavrya1078Greece10,000 Byzantines12,000 rebels0,0071%-
Battle of Sagrajas23rd October 1086Spain30 000 Almoravids60,000 Leóns, Castilian, Aragons0,0290%5,000
Battle of Lebounion Hill29th April 1091Bulgaria65 500 Byzantines80 000 Petchenegues0,0469%-
First Crusade1096 - 1099Israel37,000 Crusaders and Byzantines40,000 Fatimids0,0257%25,000
Siege of Nicaea14th May - 19th June 1097Turkey36 500 Byzantines10,000 Roums0,0150%40,000
Siege of Jerusalem7th June - 15th July 1099Israel13,500 Crusaders1,400 Fatimids0,0048%-
Battle of the Standard22th August 1138England16,000 Scottish10,000 English0,0084%12,000
Battle of Ourique25th July 1139Portugal15,000 Portuguese, English10,000 Almoravids0,0081%5,500
Second Crusade1146 - 1149Israel35,000 Crusaders- Abbasids and Fatimids0,0113%-
Siege of Damascus23th - 28th July 1148Syria50,000 Templars- Bourides0,0140%-
Battle of Myriokephalon17th September 1176Turkey25,000 byzantine- Rums0,0062%-
Battle of Hyelion and Leimocheir1177Turkey- Byzantine20,000 Roums0,0056%-
Battle of Hattin4th July 1187Israel20,000 Templars30,000 Ayyubids0,0123%17,000
Siege of Jerusalem20th September - 2nd October 1187Israel6,000 Christians40,000 Ayyubids0,0114%-
Battle of Jaffa8th August 1192Israel2,354 English10,000 Ayyubids0,0031%7,002
Siege of ZaraNovember 1202Hongria20,000 Crusaders- Hungarian0,0049%-
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa16th July 1212Spain30,000 Almohads14,000 Castilians, Aragons0,0109%-
Battle of Muret12th September 1213France13 970 French, Crusaders68,000 Aragons, Toulouse0,0205%10,008
Battle of Bouvines27th July 1214France8,500 French9,000 Germans, English0,0043%2,000
Battle of Taillebourg21st July 1242France24,000 French22,300 English0,0113%-
War of SaintongeJuly 1242France8,500 French18,000 English0,0065%-
Seventh Crusade1248 - 1254Egypt15,000 Crusaders- Ayyubids and Baharites0,0037%-
Battle of PelagoniaSeptember 1259Macedonia- Achaia, Epirus19,700 Hungarian, Serbian0,0048%-
Battle of Montaperti4th September 1260Italia30,000 Florentines18,000 Tuscan0,0118%15,600
Battle of Prinitza1263Greece20,000 Byzantines312 Achaies0,0049%-
Battle of Lewes14th May 1264England5,000 Barons10,000 English0,0037%-
Battle of Evesham4th August 1265England10,000 English5,000 Barons0,0038%-
Battle of Colle16th - 17th June 1269Italia1,100 Florentines9 400 Tuscan0,0025%-
Battle of Neopatra1272 - 1275Greece30,000 Byzantines500 Athenians0,0075%-
Cow War1275 - 1278Belgium- Goesnes, Namurs- Condrozs-15,000
Battle of Marchfeld26th August 1278Austria30,000 Austrians25,000 Gypsies0,0135%12,000
Battle of Devina17th July 1279Bulgaria10,000 Byzantines- Bulgarian0,0025%10,000
Battle of Kōan15th August 1281Japan60,000 Kamakuras146,400 yuan0,0521%120,000
Battle of Orewin Bridge11st December 1282England14 160 Welsh12,600 English0,0066%2,000
Berwick catch22th - 30th March 1296Scotland- Scottish35,000 English0,0088%8,500
Battle of Falkirk22th July 1298Scotland14,000 Scottish10,000 English0,0061%2,000
Battle of Methven19th June 1306Scotland4,500 Scottish3,000 English0,0019%4,600
Battle of Bannockburn23th - 24th June 1314Scotland9,000 Scottish25,000 English0,0086%10,000
Battle of Skerries26th January 1316Ireland6,000 Scottish10,000 Irish0,0040%-
Battle of Faughart14th October 1318Ireland2,000 Scottish20,000 Irish0,0056%110
Battle of Myton20th September 1319England15,000 Scottish20,000 English0,0088%5,000
Siege of Bursa6th April 1326Turkey12,000 Byzantines10,000 Ottomans0,0058%-
Battle of Pelekanon10th - 11th June 1329Turkey2,000 Byzantines8,000 Ottomans0,0026%-
Battle of Velbajd28th July 1330Bulgaria15,000 Serbs, Catalans12,000 Bulgarian0,0071%-
Battle of Posada9th - 12th November 1330Slovakia10,000 Vlachs30,000 Hungarian0,0101%-
Battle of Rusokastro18th July 1332Bulgaria11,000 Bulgarian3,000 Byzantines0,0035%-
Battle of Dupplin Moor10th - 11th August 1332Scotland15,000 Scottish Loyalists3,000 Scottish disinherited0,0045%2,000
Battle of Halidon Hill19th July 1333England14,700 Scottish10,000 English0,0062%-
Hundred Years War1337 - 1453France- French, Castilian and Breton- English and Burgundian-162,800
Battle of L'Écluse24th June 1340Netherlands20,000 French and Geneva20,000 English and Flemish0,0101%24,000
Battle of Saint Omer26th July 1340France3,000 French16,000 Flemish and English0,0048%8,000
Battle of Tarifa30th October 1340Spain- Castilian, Aragons60 000 Merinids0,0152%-
Battle of Peritheorion7th July 1345Greece20,000 Byzantines5,300 Bulgarian0,0067%-
Siege of Caen26th July 1346France1,600 French15,000 English0,0042%5,000
Riding of Edward III1346 - 1347France100,000 French100,000 English0,0505%32,570
Battle of Blanquetaque ford24th August 1346France12,000 French20,000 English0,0050%-
Battle of Crécy26th August 1346France50,000 French and Navarrese20,000 English0,0177%4,142
Siege of Calais1346 - 1347France8,000 French34,000 English and Flemish0,0106%-
Battle of Neville's Cross17th October 1346England12,000 Scottish4,000 English0,0040%-
Battle of Poitiers19th September 1356France15,000 French7,000 English and Gascon0,0054%4,714
Battle of Brignais6th April 1362France15,000 Tard-Venus12,000 French0,0068%-
Battle of Cascina28th July 1364Italia14 400 Florentines3,000 Pises0,0046%-
Battle of Nájera3rd April 1367Spain60,000 Castilians and French24,000 Castilians and Aquitaine0,0212%15,000
Battle of Nevele13rd May 1381Belgium20,000 Flemish6000 Ghent0,0066%5,500
Battle of Aljubarrota14th August 1385Portugal6,500 Portuguese and English31,000 Castilians and French0,0095%10,000
Siege of Constantinople1394 - 1402Turkey11,000 Romans200,000 Timourids0,0566%-
Battle of Nicopolis25th September 1396Bulgaria25,000 Ottomans16,000 Hungarian, French, Savoy0,0113%-
Battle of Ankara20th July 1402Turkey220,000 Turkish180,000 Timourids0,1105%-
Battle of Homildon Hill14th September 1402England10,000 Scottish20,000 English0,0083%-
Battle of Shrewsbury21st July 1403England60,000 English20,000 Percys0,0221%5,000
Battle of Othee23rd September 1408Belgium5,000 Burgundians6,000 Liège0,0030%3,000
Battle of Ceuta14th August 1415Spain- Merinids45,000 Portuguese0,0124%8
Siege of Harfleur18th August - 22 September 1415France400 French30,000 English0,0084%-
Battle of Azincourt25th October 1415France35,000 French9,000 English0,0122%6,600
Siege of Caen18th August - 19 September 1417France7,000 French50,000 english0,0157%-
Siege of Montereau-Fault-Yonne16th June - 1er July 1420France500 French10,000 English and bourgons0,0029%-
Battle of Montichiari8th October 1420Italia4,600 Venetians5,000 viscontis0,0027%-
Siege of Meaux1421 - 1422France- French24,000 English0,0066%6,000
Battle of Cravant31th July 1423France15,000 French and Breton4,000 Burgundians and English0,0052%7,600
Battle of Verneuil17th August 1424France18,000 French and Scottish14,000 English and Burgundian0,0088%7,600
Battle of Maclodio12th October 1427Italia16,550 Milanese28,830 Venetians, Florentines0,0083%-
Siege of Orleans1428 - 1429France9,400 French and Scottish5,000 English0,0040%6,000
Battle of Patay18th June 1429France1,500 French5,000 English0,0018%2,600
Ride to Reims26th June - 16 July 1429France77,000 French- English0,0213%-
Battle of Anghiari29th June 1440Italia4,300 Florentines6,700 Milanese0,0026%900
Battle of Varna10th November 1444Bulgaria30,000 Hungarian28,000 Ottomans0,0137%11,000
Battle of Caravaggio15th September 1448Italia19,000 Milanese16,500 Venetians0,0059%-
Battle of Formigny15th April 1450France4,500 French and Breton7,000 English0,0032%4,400
Battle of Castillon17th July 1453France10,000 French and Breton9,000 English and Gascon0,0052%4,100
Siege of Belgrade4th July - 22 July 1456Serbia64,000 Hungarians30,000 Ottomans0,0223%13,000
Battle of Blore Heath23rd September 1459England12,000 Lancastrais6,000 Yorkists0,0032%3,000
Battle of Northampton10th July 1460England15,000 Lancastrais30,000 Yorkists0,0093%300
Battle of Wakefield30th December 1460England18,000 Lancastrais9,000 Yorkists0,0058%2,200
Second Battle of Saint Albans17th February 1461England15,000 Lancastrais10,000 Yorkists0,0052%6,000
Battle of Towton29th March 1461England35,000 Lancastrais30,000 Yorkists0,0135%28,000
Night attack in Târgovişte17th June 1462Romania30 000 valachies90,000 Ottomans0,0284%20,000
Battle of Hedgeley Moor25th April 1464England6,000 Yorkists5,000 Lancastrais0,0030%-
Battle of Brustem28th October 1467Belgium25,000 Burgundians12,000 Liège0,0088%4,800
Battle of Baia15th December 1467Romania30,000 Moldavians40,000 Hungarian0,0166%-
Battle of Losecoat Field12th March 1470EnglandYorkists30,000 Yorkist rebels0,0062%-
Battle of Barnet14th April 1471England15,000 Lancastrais11,000 Yorkists0,0054%1,500
Burgundy War1474 - 1477France22,000 Burgundians1,000 Swiss0,0064%-
Battle of Vaslui10th January 1475Romania48 800 Moldovan80,000 Ottomans0,0267%-
Battle of Valea Albă26th July 1476Moldavia- Moldovan200,000 Ottomans0,0474%-
Battle of Giornico28th December 1478Italia600 Uri10,000 Milanese0,0022%-
Berwick catchJuly - August 1482England500 Scottish20,000 English0,0042%-
Battle of Bosworth22th August 1485England10,000 Yorkists11,000 Lancastrais, French, stanley0,0044%1,100
Battle of Stoke16th June 1487England12,000 Tudors8,000 Yorkists0,0041%7,000
Siege of Chateaubriant15th - 23rd April 1488France6,000 Breton12,000 French0,0037%-
Siege of Fougeres12th - 19th July 1488France15,000 French3,000 Bretons, Austrians0,0037%-
Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier28th July 1488France15,000 French11,000 Breton, English, Austrian0,0054%7,500

The most important battle in terms of proportion of the population is the battle of Yarmuk.

There were at least 1.5 million war dead during the Middle Ages. It is much less than during Antiquity. This represents 0.4% of the world population in 1450.