The oldest human settlements in the world

Here is the list of the oldest human colonies on Earth:

NameTypeCountryFounding date
OlduvaiSettlement Homo rudolfensisTanzania1800000 BC
DmanissiSettlement Homo Erectus Georgia1800000 BC
KozarnikaSettlement Homo Erectus Bulgaria1600000 BC
OlduvaiSettlement Homo habilisTanzania1500000 BC
Pirro NordSettlement Homo Erectus Italy1500000 BC
OrceSettlement man of OrceSpain1300000 BC
Sima del ElefanteSettlement Homo Erectus Spain1220000 BC
OlduvaiSettlement Paranthropus boiseiTanzania1200000 BC
KromdraaiSettlement Paranthropus robustusSouth Africa1000000 BC
Lac TurkanaSettlement Homo ergasteKenya1000000 BC
AtapuercaSettlement Homo antecessorSpain818000 BC
YunSettlement man of YunxianChina778000 BC
MauerSettlement Homo heidelbergensisGermany607000 BC
ShaanxiSettlement man of LantianChina598000 BC
Sima de los HuesosSettlement Neanderthal Spain428000 BC
Trinil Settlement Java Java428000 BC
AngersSettlementFrance398000 BC
Le HavreSettlementFrance398000 BC
Swanscombe Heritage ParkSettlement Homo erectusEngland398000 BC
CepranoSettlement man in Ceprano Italy351000 BC
TautavelSettlement man of TautavelFrance348000 BC
SteinheimSettlement Homo heidelbergensisGermany328000 BC
ChellesSettlementFrance300000 BC
ToulouseSettlementFrance298000 BC
FlorisbadSettlement Homo HelmeiSouth Africa298000 BC
Saint-AcheulSettlementFrance298000 BC
KabweSettlement Homo rhodesiensisZambia298000 BC
HeidelbergSettlement Homo heidelbergensisGermany298000 BC
AbbevilleSettlementFrance298000 BC
Carrière de MenchecourtSettlementFrance298000 BC
Carrière CarpentierSettlementFrance298000 BC
DaliSettlement man of DaliChina265700 BC
SaccopastoreSettlement Neanderthal Italy248000 BC
Tourville-la-RivièreSettlementFrance198000 BC
Biache-Saint-VaastSettlement Neanderthal France178000 BC
KibishSettlementEthiopia152000 BC
Herto BouriSettlement Homo sapiens idaltuEthiopia152000 BC
BelfortSettlementFrance148000 BC
TrebbiaSettlementItaly148000 BC
Bhimbetka rock sheltersSettlementIndia98000 BC
RescoundudouSettlement Neanderthal France73000 BC
BeauvaisSettlementFrance65000 BC
BerlinSettlementGermany60000 BC
La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1Settlement Neanderthal France58000 BC
La MicoqueSettlementFrance58000 BC
TopperSettlementUnited States48000 BC
NgadongSettlement Homo erectus soloensisIndonesia48000 BC
BeyrouthSettlementLebanon43000 BC
SepphorisSettlementIsrael43000 BC
La QuinaSettlement Neanderthal France43000 BC
Kakadu National ParkSettlement man of MungoAustralia38000 BC
Arnhem LandSettlementAustralia33000 BC
Régismont-le-HautSettlementFrance29000 BC
BiarritzSettlementFrance28000 BC
La BordeSettlementFrance28000 BC
Serra da Capivara National ParkSettlementBrazil20000 BC
OhaloSettlementIsrael19400 BC
Cactus HillSettlementUnited States15000 BC
Monte VerdeSettlementChile13000 BC
FaiyumSettlementEgypt10500 BC
MateraSettlementItaly10000 BC
Ganj-i DarehSettlementIran10000 BC
El KhiamSettlementIsrael10000 BC
Göbekli TepeSettlementTurkey10000 BC
Kortik TepeSettlementTurkey10000 BC
JerichoSettlementPalestine10000 BC
MontpellierSettlementFrance9500 BC
MaludongSettlement man of MaludongChina9500 BC
Gobekli TepeSettlementTurkey9130 BC
DamasSettlementLebanon9000 BC
Baja CaliforniaSettlementUnited States9000 BC
ByblosSettlementLebanon8800 BC
ÉdimbourgSettlementScotland8500 BC
Nevalı ÇoriSettlementTurkey8400 BC
Aşıklı HöyükSettlementTurkey8200 BC
ÇayönüSettlementTurkey8200 BC
SagalassosSettlementTurkey8000 BC
BaalbekSettlementLebanon7000 BC
RotterdamSettlementNetherlands7000 BC
MegiddoSettlementIsrael7000 BC
Chogha MishSettlementIran7000 BC
ChoirokoitiaSettlementCyprus7000 BC
HassunaSettlementIraq6500 BC
StarčevoSettlementSerbia6200 BC
SamarraSettlementIraq6200 BC
SlivenSettlementBulgaria6200 BC
HalafSettlementIraq6100 BC
CourthézonSettlementFrance6000 BC
Francfort-sur-le-MainSettlementFrance6000 BC
Les Baux-de-ProvenceSettlementFrance6000 BC
RaySettlementIran6000 BC
PlovdivSettlementRussia6000 BC
MarseilleSettlementFrance6000 BC
VinčaSettlementSerbia5700 BC
SkorbaSettlementMalta5400 BC
ErtebølleSettlementDenmark5300 BC
EriduSettlementIraq5200 BC
Cairn de KercadoSettlementFrance5200 BC
NarvaSettlementEstonia5000 BC
ColmarSettlementFrance5000 BC
MaydanetsSettlementUkraine5000 BC
MulhouseSettlementFrance5000 BC
ErbilSettlementIraq5000 BC
Plaine des JarresSettlementLaos5000 BC
Tumulus Saint-MichelSettlementFrance5000 BC
JérusalemSettlementIsrael5000 BC
FougèresSettlementFrance5000 BC
ArgosSettlementGreece5000 BC
AlepSettlementSyria5000 BC
Grand menhir brisé d'Er GrahSettlementFrance5000 BC
SofiaSettlementRomania5000 BC
MateraSettlementItaly5000 BC
LengyelSettlementHungary4900 BC
Goseck circleSettlementGermany4900 BC
CarnacSettlementFrance4500 BC
Seredny Stih SettlementUkraine4500 BC
Cairn de BarnenezSettlementFrance4500 BC
LorraineSettlementFrance4300 BC
Chassey-le-Camp SettlementFrance4200 BC
GgantijaSettlementMalta4100 BC
LondresSettlementEngland4000 BC
UrukSettlementIraq4000 BC
AlacahöyükSettlementTurkey4000 BC
Stoney Littleton Long BarrowSettlementEngland4000 BC
Saint-Alban-LeysseSettlementFrance4000 BC
Naxos SettlementItaly4000 BC
GaziantepSettlementTurkey4000 BC
Table des MarchandSettlementFrance3900 BC
Hagar QimSettlementMalta3800 BC
West Kennet Long BarrowSettlementEngland3650 BC
MnajdraSettlementMalta3600 BC
NekhenSettlementEgypt3600 BC
SalzbourgSettlementGermany3600 BC
Pentre IfanSettlementWales3500 BC
MiletSettlementTurkey3500 BC
Sechin BajoSettlementPeru3500 BC
VesoulSettlementFrance3500 BC
La Hougue BieSettlementJersey3500 BC
Dolmen de Mané-KerionedSettlementFrance3500 BC
Midhowe Chambered CairnSettlementScotland3500 BC
LoughcrewSettlementIreland3500 BC
Châlons-en-ChampagneSettlementFrance3300 BC
VelturnoSettlementItaly3300 BC
Tarxien TemplesSettlementMalta3250 BC
NewgrangeSettlementIreland3200 BC
Shahr-e SukhtehSettlementIran3200 BC
AbydosSettlementEgypt3100 BC
DmanissiSettlementGeorgia3000 BC
KerloasSettlementFrance3000 BC
LaonSettlementFrance3000 BC
KnossosSettlementGreece3000 BC
SardesSettlementTurkey3000 BC
LagashSettlementIraq3000 BC
PatrasSettlementGreece3000 BC
BabyloneSettlementIraq3000 BC
SaintesSettlementFrance2900 BC
Shunet El ZebibSettlementEgypt2700 BC
NumeiraSettlementJordan2700 BC
StonehengeSettlementEngland2800 BC
DjoserSettlementEgypt2667 BC
DholaviraSettlementIndia2650 BC
CaralSettlementPeru2600 BC
DahshurSettlementEgypt2580 BC
MeidumSettlementEgypt2580 BC
UserkafSettlementEgypt2480 BC
SahureSettlementEgypt2480 BC
Neferirkare KakaiSettlementEgypt2460 BC
NeferefreSettlementEgypt2455 BC
Menhir de PunchestownSettlementIreland2450 BC
Menhir de la LèqueSettlementFrance2300 BC
Deir el-BahariSettlementEgypt2133 BC
DülükSettlementTurkey2000 BC
TabrizSettlementIran1800 BC
VaranasiSettlementIndia1800 BC
ArkaïmSettlementRussia1700 BC
KuşaklıSettlementTurkey1600 BC
Su Nuraxi di BaruminiSettlementItaly1500 BC
AmadaSettlementEgypt1425 BC
RafahSettlementGaza1303 BC
Chogha ZanbilSettlementIran1250 BC
ChengduSettlementChina1200 BC
PétraSettlementJordan1200 BC
ThèbesSettlementGreece1100 BC
AlofiSettlementWallis and futuna1000 BC
RomeSettlementItaly800 BC
TiwanakuSettlementBolivia800 BC
PortoSettlementPortugal800 BC
MontlaurèsSettlementFrance500 BC
AlbiSettlementFrance400 BC

For information, here are the respective periods:

– Australopithecus: 4,200,000 to 2,000,000 BC,
– Homo habilis: 2,300,000 to 1,500,000 BC,
– Homo erectus: 1,000,000 to 138,000 BC,
– Neanderthal: 450,000 to 35,000 BC,
– Paleolithic: 298000 to 10000 BC,
– Mesolithic: 10000 to 5000 BC,
– Neolithic: 9000 to 3300 BC,
– Protohistory: 2500 to 500 BC,

The periods overlap because they do not start at the same time according to the regions.

Here are some events during these periods:

– Bipedics: 4,000,000 BC,
– Cut stone: 3,300,000 BC,
– Arrival in Europe: 1,800,000 BC,
– Disappearance of the Megalodon: 1,500,000 BC,
– Cooking: 500,000 BC,
– Domestication of fire: 398,000 BC,
– Beginning of the Würm glaciation: 118 000 BC,
– Appearance of the dog: 98 000 BC,
– Modern Speech: 98,000 BC,
– Clothing: 81,000 BC,
– Modern man: 38,000 BC,
– Domestication of the dog: 29 700 BC,
– Agriculture: 14,000 BC,
– Disappearance of the mammoth: 10,000 BC,
– Disappearance of the saber tooth tiger: 9700 BC,
– End of the Würm glaciation: 9430 BC,
– Breeding: 9000 BC,
– Wine culture: 6000 BC,
– Bronze Age: 3000 BC,
– Age of Copper: 1800 BC,
– Disappearance of the Dwarf mammoth: 1700 BC,
– Age of iron: 1100 BC,

Thus the oldest human settlement of the Neolithic is the one of Damascus in Lebanon. The oldest of the Mesolithic is the one of Matera in Italy. The oldest Paleolithic is the one of Toulouse in France.

The oldest human camp of the modern man is the one of Kakadu National Park in Australia.

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